Vowels

a “a” as in “father”
ā “aah” as in “aah”
i “ee” as in “meek”
ī “eee” as in “eeek”
u “oo” as in “brood”
ū “ooo” as in “boo”
“ru” as in “rude”
no English equivalent
no English equivalent
e “ay” as in “day”
ai “ie” as in “”die”
o “oe” as in “doe”
au “ow” as in “cow”
अं aṃ ANUSVĀRA is a nasalization that approximates “m,” as in “Saṃskṛta”
अः aḥ VISARGA is an added aspiration, often at the end of the word, that incorporates the preceding vowel. Thus, “namaḥ” is pronounced, “namaha,” “hariḥ” is pronounced, “harihi.”

Classified Consonants

c “ch” as in “charge”
ch aspirated consonant
g similar to the English
gh aspirated consonant
“ng” as in “ring”
c similar to the English
ch aspirated consonant
j similar to the English
jh aspirated consonant
ñ “ny” as in “canyon”
retroflex
ṭh retroflex, aspirated consonant
retroflex
ḍh retroflex, aspirated consonant
“ṇ” as in “guṇa” Retroflex; no English equivalent.
t similar to the English
th aspirated consonant
d similar to the English
dh aspirated consonant
n “n” as in “no”
p similar to the English
ph aspirated consonant
b similar to the English
bh aspirated consonant
m “m” as in “mow”

 

Unclassified Consonants

y similar to the English
r similar to the English
l similar to the English
v similar to the English
ś ś “sh” as in “shave”
ṣ as in “doṣa” Retroflex; no English equivalent.
s “s” as in “save”
h similar to the English